The Caño Island Biological Reserve is located in the Pacific Ocean, in front of the Corcovado National Park in the Osa Peninsula, approximately 15 kms offshore of the Ranger Station San Pedrillo. It was created on March 29th of 1978 and it has an extension of 200 terrestrial hectares and 2.700 marine hectares.
- The island has a great importance from the archeological point of view, because in precolombine times it was used as an indigenous cemetery. The cultural materials are ceramic remains and carved stone artifacts, including typical spheres from the Diquis. The presence of ceramic remains, suggest that the island was a key point for trade along the Pacific coast.
- Besides it protects flora and fauna species charcteristic of the tropical rainforest and important marine environments. Animals are limited in the island. Birds are represented by about 10 species, being the most commons as the heron, black hawk, osprey and the brown boobie. There are no mammals in the island only small snakes, toads and lizards.
- The island protects important marine environments: the reef corals. Associated to the reefs, we can found a wide diversity of fish species, invertebrates, algae and mammals as whales and dolphins. The marine species are present in different environments as the coral reefs, rocky beaches and cliffs where infinity of fishes, sea stars, sea urchins, lobsters and cambutes live. This last 2 species are endangered.